Tree Time

By Eloise Beil on April 26, 2016

White Oak seedlings 2
White oak seedlings. Photo by Jennifer Pauk

Earth Day (April 22), for many people the best known part of National Environmental Education Week (April 17-23), is a wonderful time to be thinking about trees. For weeks as we make the transition from winter to spring, the first buds on the trees transform the monochrome landscape with a flush of yellow, green, or red – more subtle than foliage season, but such a boost to the spirits!

This year, spring also brought Lake Champlain Maritime Museum (LCMM) some wonderful photographs of White Oak seedlings from George Pauk. The seedlings are growing in Washington DC at the home of his daughter and granddaughter – and some of them are destined for the Champlain Valley. These particular seedlings represent a new beginning: a partnership between LCMM and Vermont Family Forests that will involve students in the Champlain Valley and beyond, visiting some of the places where mature White Oak trees can be found, and seeking places where White Oaks used to grow, and might again.

White Oaks have a special place in many of the stories that we tell at Lake Champlain Maritime Museum, because they were long prized for ship building. The gunboats in Benedict Arnold’s 1776 fleet were constructed of white oak framing and planks, with masts of lighter-weight pine and ash sweeps (oars). After the Revolutionary War, Levi Allen, who had moved to Canada, contracted to deliver Champlain Valley timber to Quebec firms. A December 1785 order included 20,000 cubic feet of squared white oak, and 10,000 cubic feet of white oak pipe staves – the raw material used for rot-resistant wooden water pipes. Between logging for market, clearing for farmland and fuel, the vast old growth forests of the region vanished. In 2000, when we began work on our replica 1862 canal schooner Lois McClure, there was not enough local White Oak for the project, bringing the connection between preserving our heritage and preserving our environment into sharp focus.

One of my favorite landmarks on the daily drive along Basin Harbor Road to the Maritime Museum has always been a pair of open fields, each with a single oak tree. The scene inspired my 2003 painting White Oaks, Winter – one of a series called “Vanishing Points,” in which I captured the changing light and weather in landscapes that feel timeless but will only endure if people help to care for them. Last year, time caught up with that particular landscape – one of the oak trees was felled in a storm. While I could accept the loss of this tree to natural causes, I still feel a sense of loss driving by.

White Oaks, Winter - oil painting by Eloise Beil
White Oaks, Winter – oil painting by Eloise Beil

Working with trees involves planning ahead – thinking in years, not just media moments. The storyline about White Oak trees will weave through our stream of blogs in the coming years. “Anyone who has ever floated on a boat, or used liquids aged in barrels, or reclined on a fine piece of oak furniture ought to be interested,” George Pauk wrote recently. “These trees are beautiful, magnificent and meaningful. We are growing in our knowledge, if not much in our acts of preservation and restoration, of natural balance. Perhaps the beginning of wider knowledge and restoration of white oak and white pine to forest strength will be a part of a larger movement toward better water and life for mother earth.”

Camp Marbury on Lake Champlain

by Eileen Leary on April 15, 2016

photograph album coverWe’re very proud of our Lake Adventure Camps for kids here at the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum, but did you know that we aren’t the first summer camp to operate near Basin Harbor? Almost a century ago, the Sleeper family opened Camp Marbury, a summer camp for girls. Named for Anne Marbury Hutchinson, the camp’s beautiful and expansive lakeside grounds offered young women the opportunity for both physical activity and creative expression.

The Roost at Camp Marbury, Image Courtesy of Vermont Historical Society
1927 photo 23
Swimming in Lake Champlain, Image Courtesy of Vermont Historical Society

After many years as counselors at Aloha Camps in Fairlee, VT, Mary Peet and Henry Sleeper set out to open their own camp on Lake Champlain. Assisted by Professor Hugh Worthington and his wife, both of Sweet Briar College, the Sleepers opened Camp Marbury near the Basin Harbor Club in 1921. Although it isn’t clear what facilities existed at the camp at that time, we do know that by 1942, Camp Marbury boasted six permanent buildings, a tennis court, a riding ring, and a dock on the lake.

In any given summer, the fifty girls at Camp Marbury might enjoy swimming, canoeing, tennis, archery, baseball, handicrafts, and horse-riding, in addition to their musical and artistic pursuits. Their lengthy days (starting at 7:10 AM and stretching until 9 PM for older girls) did contain opportunities for rest and relaxation, but the vast majority of their time would be spent on and in the water where they might learn to swim and row, in the craft house where they could weave and make jewelry, or learning to play on one of the four pianos owned by the camp. Singing and acting were popular pursuits as well, as were more strenuous physical activities – several photographs from the camp show girls hiking in the mountains around Lake Champlain.

1922 photo 11
Image Courtesy of Vermont Historical Society

Sadly, rationing reduced the Sleepers’ ability to obtain supplies for the camp, and Camp Marbury ceased its operations as a girl’s camp in 1942. One of its buildings, affectionately named the Roost, is still standing today and has been incorporated into the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum campus. We here at LCMM remember it fondly as part of a tradition of exciting Lake Adventure Camps that we have continued today!

To find out more about Camp Marbury, explore the resources at the Vermont Historical Society, or pay us a visit!

Lake Champlain Maritime Museum Receives CVNHP Grant for Nautical Archaeology Archive

A 2016 Conservation and Community Grant from the Champlain Valley National Heritage Partnership heralds an important new initiative for Lake Champlain Maritime Museum, a project titled Collections & Recollections: Preserving Peter Barranco’s Legacy. Grant funds are helping LCMM initiate long-term preservation and research access to a nationally significant collection recently donated to LCMM. “The Maritime Museum is deeply grateful to Peter Barranco for his gift, and to the Champlain Valley National Heritage Partnership for helping LCMM initiate the long-term preservation and access of this important collection,” said Executive Director Mike Smiles.

Peter Barranco assisting Lorenzo F. Hagglund during salvage operations on the wreck of steamboat Vermont in September 1953. The first Lake Champlain steamboat, Vermont was built in Burlington 1808-09, and sank in the Richelieu River in October 1815.   Credit: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum, Barranco Collection
Peter Barranco assisting Lorenzo F. Hagglund during salvage operations on the wreck of steamboat Vermont in September 1953. The first Lake Champlain steamboat, Vermont was built in Burlington 1808-09, and sank in the Richelieu River in October 1815.
Credit: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum, Barranco Collection

In 2014, A. Peter Barranco, nautical archaeologist and historian, transferred his research collection to LCMM. “This is an amazing resource,” commented Eloise Beil, LCMM’s Director of Collections and Exhibits, who is managing the project. “Mr. Barranco’s life work has been to assemble comprehensive information related to Lake Champlain vessels. His collection fills an entire office with materials documenting Lake Champlain’s sailing vessels, naval vessels, steamboats, ferries, and canal boats, and the people who built, owned, and operated them.”

Early in his career, Mr. Barranco worked for Lorenzo F. Hagglund (ca. 1894-1961), who conducted search and salvage operations on many important Lake Champlain shipwrecks including the 1776 Philadelphia (now in the Smithsonian), and Royal Savage (returned to the U. S. Navy in July, 2015), and the lake’s first steamboat, Vermont, which began service in 1809. Many of Hagglund’s records, given to Barranco for his research, were included in the gift to LCMM. Peter Barranco has also been a research affiliate of LCMM since the museum’s founding in 1986, and served as navigation control specialist and historian during LCMM’s Sonar Survey of Lake Champlain Shipwrecks from 1996–2002. For more than half a century, until failing eyesight forced his retirement, Peter Barranco provided research support on underwater archaeological projects conducted in Lake Champlain and responded to queries from the general public.

“We will share highlights of Peter Barranco’s collection and some of his recollections with the public this summer in our Nautical Archaeology Center through exhibition and an oral history video,” explains Eloise Beil, LCMM’s Director of Collections and Exhibits. “This project will also inform the public about the preservation of important documents. Archival management of the Barranco Collection will ensure that the records he gathered will continue to be available to guide long term stewardship and preservation of Lake Champlain’s historic shipwrecks.” Conservation and Community Grant funding will provide archival quality storage for this massive and highly significant collection. The work will take place in LCMM’s Conservation Lab with ongoing public interpretation of the process. The museum is currently seeking a summer intern with an interest in archaeology, archives, or museum studies to help with this work. The accompanying video will also share the importance and methods of caring for collections of historic documents. “It is an honor to carry forward the work of previous generations of Lake Champlain’s nautical archaeologists,” Beil concluded.

In addition to rehousing the Barranco Collection in archival storage materials, a collection scope and content note and inventory will be created to facilitate research access. LCMM staff will work with Vermont State Archaeologist Jess Robinson to develop research access protocols and plan for future digitization for preservation and access to the collection. Andy Kolovos, Archivist and Co-Director of the Vermont Folklife Center, will provide guidelines for the oral history interviews of Peter Barranco, which will be on deposit at LCMM and at the VT Folklife Center archives. The 8-10 minute video created for LCMM’s mini-exhibit on the project will be distributed through RETN and YouTube.

Lake Champlain Maritime Museum’s 4-acre lakeside campus is open daily from May 21 through October 9. Founded in 1986 to preserve and share the maritime heritage of the Champlain Valley, Lake Champlain Maritime Museum shares underwater discoveries and lake history with the public through engaging exhibits, dynamic hands-on learning opportunities, full-scale working replica vessels, and innovative on-water experiences.  As a year-round educational service provider, Lake Champlain Maritime Museum connects with more than 2,500 Elementary and Middle School Students through valuable place-based learning, ecology and nautical archaeology experiences and other programming with museum educators. Find more information at , Facebook, or call 802 475-2022.

Second AmeriCorp Member Joins Lake Champlain Maritime Museum!

tumblr_nmwo55tmaf1qh8viko6_500The new AmeriCorps program at the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum is speeding right along with the addition of a second AmeriCorps volunteer! My name is Eileen Leary, and I’m a 25 year old MA graduate from University College London. I grew up around boats – I’ve been on them since literally before I was born! – have degrees in history and archaeology, and have worked in museum education. I’m also very passionate about public service and giving back to the community, so when I found out about the position at the LCMM, it seemed made for me!
I’m very excited to be here, because there are so many opportunities for me to explore my varied interests. Lake Champlain Maritime Museum not only has a fascinating museum collection, but also full-sized replicas of several historic vessels, a blacksmith’s shop, boat-building facilities, and many educational programs that incorporate several of the above. These fantastic resources allow for hands-on, non-traditional education that can adapt to all learning styles, and can be especially helpful for learners for whom a traditional classroom setting isn’t ideal!

I wasn’t always passionate about museum education and archaeology, and it was only through community programs and educational opportunities that I was able to realize my interest in these topics. Now as an archaeologist, I’m especially looking forward to the Shipwreck Tours, which allow you to explore the many shipwrecks of Lake Champlain via ROV. Remote Operated Vehicles are very useful tools for underwater archaeology, so I’m also excited for our summer camps that allow kids to build or modify their own ROV – learn more about them here!

I look forward to helping young learners find their interests, expand their skills and knowledge, and discover the rich history of Lake Champlain!

Looking Forward to Summer Camp at LCMM!

11145015_10153422820861197_2599326938676101580_oIt’s March; children have settled into school routines and now are knee deep in schoolwork (although in past years they were knee deep in snow!). Warm summer days may still seem like a far off dream. But the truth is, it’s never too early to start looking forward to a carefree summer. For campers, as well as staff, summer camp is a magical experience that can never quite be put into words. Camp is where lifetime memories and lasting friendships are made.

Lake Champlain Maritime Museum’s Lake Adventure Camps give our campers the opportunity to reconnect with nature. With so much entertaining technology at their fingertips, young adults are far less likely to unplug and head outside to form a connection with the environment. LCMM can inspire them to realize that going outside is worth the time. LCMM is located directly on beautiful Lake Champlain, surrounded by mountains in every direction.

10551500_10153428250471197_4089712625388495761_oIn today’s world, social media rules. Too many young people communicate with friends solely through texting and posting to Instagram. A large part of what makes summer camp so enjoyable is reconnecting with past camp friends and making new friends.  At LCMM these connections are made face-to-face. Anyone who has attended a Lake Adventure Camp will tell you, it’s like being part of one big extended family. Within that family, both staffers and campers get to share what they love and hone in on interpersonal skills that bind them together forever.

The most enticing thing about summer camp at LCMM is the freedom to explore. A camper can look forward to shedding the constraints of school and their never-ending homework when camp begins, yet learning doesn’t stop with the school year.  We present our campers with plenty of adventure and exploration-based learning opportunities, all while having fun.

With such a broad range of programs, and the different activities within each, campers can look forward to building on areas they know they are interested in, and also explore new ones. Whether exploring the waterfront by bike, searching the water depths with a snorkeling mask, or paddling and rowing while learning about boat safety, boat building and the history of boats on Lake Champlain, no camper will ever be bored. We also have camps designed around fascinating activities on land, such as blacksmithing and metal work. No matter what you are interested in, LCMM has something fun and exciting for everyone! Each camp provides space for young people to grow as individuals by getting to pursue their own interests.


NOW is the time to go sign up for a LCMM Lake Adventure Camp. Programs are filling and we want your children to have something great to look forward to—please see our website for the details. We look forward to seeing you this summer!  Click here to Register!

AmeriCorps at Lake Champlain Maritime Museum!

March marks a special new beginning for Lake Champlain Maritime Museum! This month is the official start of a new partnership forged between the Museum and the AmeriCorps. My name is Erin Sward, I am a 22-year-old University of Connecticut graduate, and the first AmeriCorps volunteer to join the LCMM team. I couldn’t be more delighted! In the short time I’ve been here it has already become clear that LCMM is far more than just a museum. I am the start of another way the LCMM is expanding their capacity to serve students.

I am an animal science major, so this is an opportunity for me to go out on a limb and try something new. What drew me here was the ecology, and the opportunity to work with kids on environmental education outside of the classroom setting.

My position is to be an integral part of the Museum’s various innovative educational programs. I am looking forward to helping implement the new adventure oriented after school programs at Vergennes Elementary School. I also can’t wait to be in the boat shop this semester providing support to the team boat-building program. I get to help learning impaired students from the Diversified Occupations Program of the Hannaford Career Center build a 32-foot traditional 19th century design wooden longboat. I am ecstatic to be trained as both a coach and a coxswain to support the nine different High School rowing programs that have after-school practice every week and rowing events at LCMM to provide a physical fitness outlet right here on Lake Champlain.

By far I am most excited for the summer months to arrive so I can work as an educator at the numerous summer camps the LCMM has to offer. I’m thrilled to engage in tons of on-water and underwater programs in nautical archaeology and especially lake ecology. There are so many opportunities in the coming months and I hope to make an impact on how Lake Champlain Maritime Museum provides unique learning experiences for youth that they will always remember.

Lake Champlain Maritime Museum Receives Grant from Vermont Community Foundation to Partner with Vergennes Schools


Lake Champlain Maritime Museum received a grant of $20,000 from the Vermont Community Foundation’s Innovations and Collaborations program to expand education opportunities for elementary and middle school students at Vergennes Union Schools. “We are thrilled to receive the award,” says Mike Smiles, LCMM Executive Director.  “This grant allows the Museum to build its capacity to serve the Vergennes Schools’ innovative year-round after-school programs. The project is an important first step in redefining how the Museum can make a difference to students’ success through a maritime lens for learning. We are grateful to Addison Northwest Supervisory Union Superintendent JoAn Canning, Mayor Bill Benton, and Board Superintendent Jeffry Glassberg for their vision of expanding opportunities through community partnerships.”

The Innovations and Collaborations grant program supports nonprofits to collaborate across issues and sectors to find new ways of working to develop shared solutions to community needs. According to the Vermont Community Foundation, in this round, 13 extraordinary projects that represent the very best of innovative nonprofit work in Vermont were chosen from a pool of 21 applicants for first year funding. The new project, dubbed “The STEAMSHIP Program,” will help Addison County youth meet state and local standards in core academic subjects (such as math, science, technology, engineering, English, arts, and social studies) while participating in a broad array of after school enrichment activities that complement their regular academic programs.

With the Maritime Museum students have a chance to build submersible robots out of PVC pipe, create their own documentary films, or learn chart making skills – all linked to their new Act 77 Personalized Learning Plans. It’s awesome!” said Jill Strube, who directs the Vergennes Schools’ FUSION after-school enrichment programs.

“We are excited to engage Vergennes students in expeditionary learning activities that connect them to the maritime history of Lake Champlain as a whole and, more specifically, to the deep maritime heritage of the City of Vergennes,” says LCMM’s Deputy Director Erick Tichonuk. “This new collaboration directly connects students to the Museum’s nautical archaeology program, educational curricula, and educators for in-depth learning through after-school programs.

Using LCMM’s experience in nautical archaeology, ship building, boat building, robotics, exhibit design, and primary source research as a framework, students will participate in team-oriented projects that will serve both as civic engagement and a celebration of learning through student-designed exhibits, original research and data collection, and 8th grade capstone presentations.

In 2012, Vergennes Union Middle and High School were inducted into the League of Innovative Schools with a goal to promote innovative strategies, to establish a network of best practices that is directly linked to 21st century learning, and to promote greater educational equity and opportunities for all students. The schools employ Expeditionary Learning, a program that puts emphasis on experiential learning.

The formal partnership between LCMM and VUS was initiated in the fall of 2015, when students built a SEAPERCH Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) used for underwater exploration. The results of this first semester can best be seen in this very short and exciting video of the students’ accomplishments:

Currently, students are working with LCMM videographer Kris Jarrett to produce a documentary on a Lake Champlain shipwreck. LCMM’s Deputy Director Erick Tichonuk recently met with after-school program coordinator Jill Strube to review partnership goals and plans for 2016. “Important goals for the project include greater involvement and accomplishments by individual students, and developing a program that can be a model for museums and other informal education partners working with schools throughout Vermont and beyond,” Tichonuk concludes.

Ecology Workshop at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge

Leopard-Frog-MWLooking north to Quebec with a strong wind arriving cold in our teeth from the same direction, we were ready to net fish at 7:00am on October 2. The temperature there at Missisquoi Bay had barely topped forty degrees and we had to wade into Lake Champlain.

LCMM Ecology Programs Director Elizabeth Lee and I laughed off the chill, scoped the shaley shore for aquatic weeds among which fish might be lurking, and readied the 30-foot-long seine net. The water was brown as creamed coffee due to recent rains washing down the Missisquoi River. The puffs of white and brown cappuccino foam in the shallows belied the phosphorus that that river carries to the lake.

Given the challenges, and given that one session of our NOAA-funded “B-WET” training that day hinged on identifying fish, I invoked the freshwater spirits by calling into the 20-knot breeze: “Here, fishy-fishy!” Elizabeth looked amused but skeptical. Little did she know.


Searching-for-invertebrates-MWWe made two passes with the net, grateful for the neoprene waders that kept our legs warm. First run was okay – at least we caught something – a few small yellow perch and shiners. The second netting seemed at first to be similar, bringing us some baby bluegills and a bass and then, in the very bottom of the net… a larger fish flopping angrily, splashing water in our faces…a pike! More than a foot long. Total victory for a short fishing jaunt in the littoral zone. Into the bucket of water the fish went, to be hauled off to jail for a couple of hours at the Missisquoi National Wildlife Refugenature center, where the workshop was to be held, starting in only a half-hour.

We had a wide variety of educators filter in that morning: teachers from Lincoln and Hinesburg Elementary schools; from Essex High; an environmental educator from Sutton, Québec, who works in Eastern Township schools; and two environmental educators from Franklin County. During our morning coffee break, it came out that four of us could chat with each other in French, which is not atypical of a gathering so close to the border, n’est ce pas?

The Wildlife Refuge staff warmly welcomed us, inviting school groups to explore the wetland treasures at the refuge. We used a dichotomous key to identify our several fish species. The northern pike was the star of the show. From Erin De Vries of the UVM Watershed Alliance we learned about the “River Continuum” – how stream characteristics change as they run from small headwaters to lower in the Champlain Basin and finally into the lake. Erin also led a dabble with nets in man-made ponds just outside the nature center, sharing many suggestions for equipment, activities and curricula to use with students. Despite being the recipients of the building’s grey water, the ponds were hopping with life, from mayfly larvae to diving spiders. Kurt Valenta, who runs an educational water-critter-based program called “Bugworks” – created in 2008 by the Missisquoi River Basin Association – was on hand to help identify the invertebrates that we netted and also to share his enthusiasm for discovering who lived in the muck and reeds.

After a quick lunch, it was out to the main stem of the Missisquoi for a motor launch ride to the river bank near Cranberry Pool, an impounded marsh that favors waterfowl habitat. Expert birder and wetland ecologist Jake Straub from SUNY Plattsburgh gave us a sex talk – and other behaviors, of course – as far as geese and ducks go. As he spoke to us on the dike that holds water containing wild rice and many other valuable wetland plants, we saw ducks, grebes, kingfishers, and songbirds periodically take flight. In the distance we spied a giant eagle’s nest perched in a copse of sliver maples. Someone noticed that, near where we stood, there was evidence of a mortal drama. Feathers of various hues and stripes lay scattered on the grass. After close examination, Jake guessed that a predator – either a raptor or canine – had killed a wood duck here.

Rounding out the explorations of the unique habitat features in the “Birdfoot delta” area of the lower Missisquoi, we dragged a plankton net along the surface of the water on our return trip to our launch site, and looked at the tiny critters through a very basic field microscope – just a few copepods and strands of filamentous algae showed up. We also set out with hand nets to catch leopard frogs that leapt now and then along the river bank. Participants caught a total of seven specimens, examined them closely for deformations of digits and legs, and pronounced them all normal.

We’d like to think our fellow educators, stoked up that day to see and do so many activities that would ideally enthuse young people about aquatic ecosystems, will convey their energy and new tools to their students. We plan to be in touch with participants, and hope to learn which activities worked well with their classes. Some will probably take advantage of our “loaner kit” which we are assembling this winter to be available starting in the spring. The kit will include a number of tools we used during our B-Wet workshops including seine net, plankton net, field microscope, river corridor assessment protocols, and other aquatic data collection methods.

LCMM Hosts Youth Rowing Races on Burlington Waterfront October 10

On Saturday October 10, Lake Champlain Maritime Museum’s Champlain Longboats Program will hold its annual youth rowing race in Burlington, The James Wakefield Rescue Row. The race is named after James Wakefield who was responsible for the courageous rescue of the passengers and crew of canal schooner General Butler on December 9, 1876 when the vessel crashed into the Burlington breakwater during a fierce winter gale.

(above) Youth participants in the James Wakefield Rescue Row. Click image for high-resolution download and find more at our Press Room.

For Immediate Release
Nick Patch, Outdoor Education Director
(802) 475-2022,

Over 150 youth in 20 crews will participate in the race, rowing 32- and 25-foot boats in a series of heats along the Burlington Waterfront. Local crews hail from Burlington High School, South Burlington High School, Diversified Occupations Program at the Hannaford Career Center, Vergennes Middle and High School, Champlain Valley Union High School, Rice Memorial High School and Mt. Abraham Union Middle and High School, while visiting crews travel from as far as the coast of Maine. Races begin at 9:00 at Perkins Pier at the foot of Maple Street.

The colorful boats used in this event were built by Vermont High School and Middle School students at Lake Champlain Maritime Museum’s boat shop. The boats are used by 160 students at nine area schools in After-School rowing programs that meet two or three times a week through mid-November. Setup to build the next boat in LCMM’s fleet begins in November, ready for a new crew of boat building students to arrive in January.

See these boats in action: Lake Champlain Maritime Museum’s website, Facebook page, andYouTube channel.


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For Information Contact: Nick Patch

Phone: 802-475-2022 x113;

  • If you wish to photograph the race from a boat contact Nick Patch at the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum.
  • To download additional images of the James Wakefield Rescue Row, visit LCMM’s web pressroom; see images 6, 8 and 10 (click thumbnail image to access high-res file).

LCMM Receives Funding to Assess Shipwreck for Inclusion in Preserve

Lake Champlain Maritime Museum (LCMM) is pleased to announce the receipt of a grant award from the Champlain Valley National Heritage Partnership (CVNHP) to investigate and recommend an additional shipwreck for inclusion in the Lake Champlain Underwater Historic Preserve.

The Lake Champlain Underwater Historic Preserve system provides public access for scuba divers to some of Lake Champlain’s remarkably preserved historic shipwrecks. There are currently nine wrecks designated as part of this underwater park, eight of which are in Vermont State waters. Feedback from the diving community indicates a strong desire for additional sites to be opened for recreational exploration.

This award from CVNHP will fund the assessment of selected sites on the basis of diver safety and archaeological sensitivity to determine which wreck will be recommended for inclusion. Dive safety considerations for selection are based reasonable boating traffic and environmental factors, suitable depth for recreational dive limits, and predictable underwater conditions. Archaeological considerations for selection will include structural tolerance for reasonable impact from divers.

Funding will also be used to document a potential shipwreck selection using direct diver measurement, videography, and artifact assessment. Lake Champlain Maritime Museum will make recommendations to the Vermont Division of Historic Preservation in its role as the Manager of the Underwater Historic Preserve.

Funding for this project came from a 2015 Water Trail Grant from the Champlain Valley National Heritage Partnership. This project was funded by an agreement (P14AC01016) awarded by the United States National Park Service (NPS) to the New England interstate Water Pollution Control Commission (NEIWPCC) in partnership with the Champlain Valley National Heritage Partnership. NEIWPCC manages CVNHP’s personnel, contract, grant, and budget tasks, and provides input on the program’s activities. The viewpoints expressed here do not necessarily represent those of NEIWPCC, CVNHP, LCBP, NPS, or the U. S. Government, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products or causes constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.